Types of translation (T. Kazakova, V. Komissarov).

The next classification is very much contemporary. It was done by professor Kazakova. There are many classifications of types of translations but she summed up it. The summary is very much informed. She divides all the types of translation into two groups:


2) abridge.

All the types of translation are thought to be complete, but Kazakova does not deal with retelling (to her mind is is a translation) as to abridge types of translation Kazakova gives the types that show the relationship between the client and the translator. (Now this is the first time we come to discuss the translation situation, some conditions on the what translation may take place)


Complete translation (-all but retelling)

abridge translation(selective or searching translation) this is preserving the essence of the text disregarding the parts that he believes to be of little importance.

E.G. When you have to give your boss information combined in several business letters, you must compress text.

Or-another example of abridged translation is the functional translation. The task is to re-arrange the parts of the source text in such a way that the information, which as valid for the recipient, comes first. In any case you simplify the text to make it clear for the reader.

Abridge translation(selective, functional etc. )are very much important for those who deal with the translation of business documentation. Sometimes abridged translation is put into effect when you translate some books, fiction that is meant for grown-ups and you have to adapt it for children two types of translation or put into effect :adaption and abridge translation.E.G. He you translate Robinson Cruso is not necessary for children. That is why we should exclude all the moralities from the book and preserve all the parts of roben's advantures.- write an adapted abridged translation.

Word-for-word translation (complete) it is necessary when dealing with scientific texts or legal documenti in medicine. Sometimes it is used in fiction but not very often.

Semantic translation- complete, based on rendering the contextual meaning of the text. (e.g. I’ ll give him the money . it may be translated “a дам ему денег, не беспокойся” или «Дам я ему денег! Ну как-же». You translate the context/ The translation may not even be found in the dictionary but the translator has a feeling that here thw word conveys this meaning.

Communicative translation (also complete) to produce an adequate impression upon the reader it’s never word- for- word but the reader motive and the purpose are the same as those of the original.



Komissarov suggests two classifications; one of them rests on the communicative function of the text. According to it all translation types fall into

· literaryand

· informative.

Literary translation deals with literary texts, i.e. works of fiction or poetry whose main function is to make an emotional or aesthetic impres­sion upon the reader. Their communicative value depends, first and fore­most, on their artistic quality and the translator's primary task is to repro­duce this quality in translation.

Informative translation is rendering into the target language non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader.

Literary works are known to fall into a number of genres. The great challenge to the translator is to combine the maximum equivalence and the high literary merit.

A number of subdivisions can be also suggested for informative, trans­lations, though the principles of classification here are somewhat different. Here we may single out translations of scientific and technical texts, of newspaper materials, of official papers and some other types of texts such
as public speeches, political and propaganda materials, advertisements, etc.,

The other, based on the form of speech, comprises

· written and

· oral(simultaneous, consecutive, sight) types of translation.

As the names suggest, in written translation the source text is in written form, as is the target text. In oral translation or interpretation the interpreter listens to the oral presentation of the original and translates it as an oral message in TL. As a result, in the first case the Receptor of the translation can read it while in the second case he hears it.

There are also some intermediate types. The interpreter rendering his translation by word of mouth may have the text of the original in front of him and translate it "at sight". A written translation can be made of the original recorded on the magnetic tape that can be replayed as many times as is necessary for the translator to grasp the original meaning. The trans­lator can dictate his "at sight" translation of a written text to the typist or a short-hand writer with TR getting the translation in written form.

These are all, however, modifications of the two main types of transla­tion. The line of demarcation between written and oral translation is drawn not only because of their forms but also because of the sets of conditions in which the process takes place. The first is continuous, the other „ momentary. In written translation the original can be read and re-read as many times as the translator may need or like. The same goes for the final product. The translator can re-read his translation, compare it to the origi­nal, make the necessary corrections or start his work all over again. He can come back to the preceding part of the original or get the information he needs from the subsequent messages. These are most favourable conditions and here we can expect the best performance and the highest level of equivalence.


The conditions of oral translation impose a number of important restrictions on the translator's performance. Here the interpreter receives a fragment of the original only once and for a short period of time. His trans­lation is also a one-time act with no possibility of any return to the original or any subsequent corrections. This creates additional problems and the users have sometimes to be content with a lower level of equivalence.

There are two main kinds of oral translation — consecutive and simul­taneous. In consecutive translation the translating starts after the original speech or some part of it has been completed.

In simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is supposed to be able to give his translation while the speaker is uttering the original message. This can be achieved with a special radio or telephone-type equipment. The in­terpreter receives the original speech through his earphones and simulta­neously talks into the microphone which transmits his translation to the listeners. This type of translation involves a number of psycholinguistic problems, both of theoretical and practical nature.


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