Oral interpretation. Its main types.

1. There are 2 subtypes of oral communication (as a process of communication):

1.-Sequential (consecutive interpretation).

1.-Immediate (simultaneous interpretation).


1.There is another division:


1.Escort translation. The interpreter accompanies the person. The situation is rather friendly, no tension. He knows, what he is going to speak of, knows the place of interest, gets prepared, can chose the necessary expressions or even learn his speech by heart. The only be in the ointment is the necessity to answer the questions.

1.Sequential translation. It depends upn the nature of the conference. We can prepare to the conference, but the preparation will be of general kind. This happens bcos he doesn’t exactly know the topic of the discussion. He doesn’t know exactly, what is the lng level of the speaker. He may speak idiomatic lng. The speaker will not think of the speed. If this is an academic discussion, the translator should adopt not his speech, but his psyche to the situation. He has to use his intuition. He should adopt the personal style of the speaker. They won’t forgive you, if you can’t interpret a metaphor.

1.Immediate translation. It’s done without pauses, at the same rate as the speaker talks. If the translation is done in a room with special equipment, the interpreter doesn’t see the speaker. Nobody pays any attention to the style. He should know many clichés. (They make speech more idiomatic & help to think over smth.

1.Sight translation. It is usually done in court or at conferences. It means translating documents, that haven’t been given to the translator beforehand, bcos any of the parties may consider it profitable pot to let the other party know the content of the document. The interpreter should provide a good working version of the document under the question. Sight translation can be very different; bcos the situation dominates the process. The translator may be occasionally called upon to compare the documents in SL & TL. This happens most often in case of legal documents. This is a very important task. The translator should be familiar with both cultures. Another exercise occurs when a client is overwhelmed by high amount of material in foreign lng & he invites the translator to give him the summary on the spot. In this case precision is the most important thing. In this case you are not allowed to compress. It’s literal translation & the thing is that if you don’t know a word & think it’s necessary you may ask for recognition to use the dictionary.

1.12. Oral interpretation. Its main characteristics.

Oral interpretation demands the following “shall”:

- Exceptional articulation

- High comfort speaking level in front of the audience

- Public speaking experience

- The ability to retain one or two points while listening to new information & then reproduce entire message

- The ability to summarize the main points of smth being said

- Experience in one or more technical areas

- Complete ease in both lngs

Interpreting can take place in the following environments:

Conference. It’s a case when many people discuss a topic & sometimes they do it simultaneously. People interrupt each other & the translator should keep track of the main ideas & disregard repetitions. At the same time he should look for periods of time when he can sum up the previous information to precede the further. A translator is a kind of master of ceremony.

Meeting. They are usually held in a more orderly manner. The translator may resort to simultaneous translation; bcos people will keep special pauses. You’re going to discuss conditions not issues. Precision is necessary & you can discuss your clients’ intentions beforehand.

Telecom. It doesn’t give you the atmosphere of the conference you don’t feel it. Such meetings aren’t full of undercurrents, which are very important for the translator. You should listen through the lines.

OPI interpretation. Americans use it very often (24 hours a day service). The service enables the speakers to communicate by phone in a 3-way conference call, including the interpreter. This service is used mainly for business. This kind of interpretation is rather difficult. The interpreter doesn’t see the speakers & isn’t able to learn anything about topic of conversation beforehand. Speakers can switch over to any related theme & they may be illogical. The translator should use compressed lng bcos the speakers pay for a minute.


14. Differences between translation & interpretation

1Speech is time – bound, dynamic, and transient. It’s a part of interaction, in which both participants are usually present. A speaker has a particular addressee. Your translation will depend upon the addressee. You should know whom you rely upon. You should be ready to paraphrase what you had said.

Writing is space – bound, static, and permanent. It’s the result of situation in which the writer is usually distant from the reader & often doesn’t know who the reader is going to be. The reader is your client & you do not know exactly what your client really needs. If your client is a specialist, then before creating a clean copy, discuss it with the client. Cooperate with your client.


2-The spontaneity & speed of most speech exchanges make it difficult to engage in complex advanced planning. The pressure to think while talking promotes looser construction, repetition, rephrasing, & comment clauses. Intonation & pause divide long utterances into manageable chunks, but sentence boundaries are often unclear. In some cases speech depends upon the situation. Speech is never spontaneous. It’s always prepared. If you are to translate a general conversation of informal character, you are to be prepared to all sorts of deviations & to make illogical speech logical. Use short sentences to make your speech compressed & unambiguous.

-Writing allows repeated reading & use of analysis & promotes the development of careful organization, compact expression with often-intricate structures. Units of discourse are usually easy to identify through punctuation & layout (arrangement of the page). Repeated reading allows you to compress the lng, & make it more expressive. You should read the whole text, get the general idea, the idea of every paragraph, compare the ideas of the paragraph with the whole text, decide which role each paragraph plays for the whole text. Then translate the paragraph sentence by sentence


3.- Bcos participants are usually in face-to-face interaction, they can rely on such extra linguistic clause as facial expression or gestures to add meaning or to get feed back. The lexicon of speech is usually vague. Use words, which refer directly to situation (deictic expressions: that is, in here etc). On the other hand words we use in oral communication are not very much precise, bcos we don’t have time to chose a word. The communicator becomes verbose, bcos we have to explain want is really meant. The job of translator is to find out the meaning out of the succession of words & formulate the utterance economically. It’s a job to give a jest of the utterance & relate it to the second interlocutor.

--Lack of visual contact means can’t rely on the extra linguistic context to make the meaning clear. Most writing therefore avoids the usage of deictic expressions. Writers must also anticipate the effects of time-lay between production & repetition & the problems posed by the lng, read & interpreted by many recipients in diverse settings. Instead of extra linguistic context you should relate a verbal context, which will make the meaning clear. You can’t be too verbose but you can take your time. You can chose between many options. The rule is: THE RIGHT WORD IN THE RIGHT PLACE. The fact that the translator doesn’t have any immediate feedback nay be regarded as disadvantage; in this case the translator should use imagination in order to have a clear vision of his addressee. The level of lng is proficiency. That’s why he should avoid parenthetical words, which cause misunderstanding & ambiguity. They will distract attention from the main topic. You should think of many recipients & chose a word, which many of them will understand. It’s easy to translate technical text bcos their characteristic feature is precision. When you start translating essays & popular articles you should be aware of lots of difficulties created by different settings. If you translate from Russian into English, you should be aware of “political correctness”.


4. --Many words & constructions are characteristic of speech. Lengthy coordinate sentences are normal, & are often of considerable complexity. Nonsense vocabulary is not usually written & may have no standard spelling. Obscenity may be replaced by graphic euphemism. Slang & graphical informality should not be used in writing. Informal speech presents lots of challenges for the interpreter. Atypical grammatical constructions cannot be avoided & should be dealt with. Obscene words should be avoided & replaced by neutral phrases. Slang is quite an obstacle. It should be avoided in oral speech, bcos it may create a wrong impression on your interlocutor.

--Some words & constructions (multiple instances of subordination in the same sentence, elaborately balanced syntactic patterns & long, often multipage sentences) are characteristic of writing. Certain items of vocabulary are never spoken (long names of chemical components). Elaborately balanced syntactic patterns are important.


5. --Speech is very suited of social & phatic functions. It’s good at expressing social relationships & personal opinions, due to the vast range of nuances, which can be expressed by the prosody & accompanying non-verbal features. The ability to pronounce one word (phrase or sentence) with multiple information patterns.

--Writing is very suited to recording of facts, communication of ideas, tasks of memory & learning. Written records are easier to keep & to scan, tables demonstrate relationships between things, notes & lists provide mnemonics, and texts can be read. Writing is a priceless instrument for the translator. Every translator should first learn how to take notes. When he has written a text, he should make sure that he had chosen the right meaning to develop later into a full-fledged text. He should possess all kinds of memory.


6.There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance while it is in progress (starting again, adding qualification). However errors once spoken cannot be withdrawn (the one exception is when a sound engineer performs wonders of auditory plastic surgery on a tape-recorder of non-fluent speech). Interruption & overlapping are normal & highly audible. Its possible when speakers are in frank terms & communication is informal. But if the interpretation is official it should be remembered that the situation of rethinking, saying things again is absolutely impossible. If you’ve made a mistake don’t correct it.

--Inadequacies of our writing can be eliminated in later drafts without the reader ever knowing they were there. Interruptions if they ever occur in writing are invisible in the final product. Written texts are edited. The translator should remember that the final target lng text is a result overlapping of several drafts.

7.Unique features of speech include most of the prosody. The main nuances of intonation, as well as contrasts of loudness, tempo, rhythm & other tones of voice cannot be written down with much efficiency. Every translator should to some degree possess the qualities of actor. He should be able to discover what tone is meant. Sometimes such things as gestures can help.

-Unique features of writing include pages, lines capitalization, spatial organization & several aspects of punctuality. Only a few graphic conversions relate to prosody, such as questions, marks & underlining for emphasis. Writing possesses much more opportunities for the translator. There are several types such as italics, bold type, and spacing. They show the importance of this or that word & attract attention. Every translator should know the punctuation rules


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