The principle of (un)translatability.

Some scholars say that than does not exist at all. We can not translate.

1. No 2 languages having the same phonology it is impossible to re-create the sound of a work composed in one language in another language.

2. No 2 languages having the same syntactic structure. It is impossible to re-create the syntax of a word composed in one language in another

3. No 2 languages having the same vocabulary, it is impossible to re-create the vocabulary of a work composed in one language in another language.

4. No 2 languages having the same literary history, it is impossible to re-create the literary forms of a work composed in one language in another language.

5. No 2 languages having the same prosody, it is impossible to re-create the prosody of a literary work composed in one language in another language.

But other scholars believe that the translation exists.

We use translation every day. People translate to communicate. The key- word is experience. On this respect we may speak about general experience (this experience that we all possess) and individual experience. The mentality of people is different. That is why poem very often do not understand what we mean, we have to explain what we mean, we have to paraphrase what we mean, we have to define what we mean within the frame work of one and the same language, of one and the same culture. And is this case we may say that we use interlinguistic translation and we use intralinguistic translation. So, translation exists and we use it every day.

4) Translation theories (the theory of regular correspondences, situational theory).

The TRC was generally recognized as the first fundamental linguistic theory of translation. As a linguistic basis of translation J.I. Recker suggested establishing certain correspondences between the source language and the target language. In doing so he distinguished three categories of regular correspondences in translating: 1) equivalents; 2) analogues; 3) adequate replacements.

1) equivalents-single valued (однозначный) term, (The United Nations- Организация Объединенных наций)

2) analogues-adequate units between TL and SL (synonyms) (Fair has 2 translations честный и справедливый, fair
share- справедливая доля, fair deal- честная сделка
)

3) adequate replacements- antonymic translation (the meaning of the whole) (A good riddance!- Скатертью дорожка!)

The situational (denotative) model (the way from the SL to the TL leads through reality, i.e., the translator uses his/her knowledge and previous experience of the world at the point of transfer) → “interpretation” Apart from some insignificant differences, there is a common reality surrounding us, and thus in linguistic interaction it is only the linguistic signs that differ, the signified objects, i.e. the denotata are the same. The translator traces the SL signs back to the world of denotata common to all of us, or, in other words, he/she clarifies which situation of the objective world is described by the SL text. A typical case of translation based on the denotative model is the translation of realia → the translator can make several choices: 1) can borrow the foreign word, equate it with a similar TL realia, 2) invent a new TL word, etc. We translate according to the denotative model when there is only one possible solution in the TL for the naming or description of an object or situation.

 






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