Lexical translation techniques.
Concretization. It’s the most frequent device in translation from English into Russian. There is a wide group of English words of semantic volume. These words belong to different parts of speech (thing, affair, nice, point, case, fine). The meaning of them is rather vague & usually the translator uses them in different contexts, but in fact they are used as mere prop-words (do not express anything). The translator needs a context to determine their meaning.
*He came in sight of a lodge, a low, long frowning thing of red brick. – он увидел длинное серое мрачное здание из красного кирпича
Generalization. This device is reverse of concretization. Still there is a tendency of differentiation in English, when Russian uses more general word. In some cases there is an equivalent in the TL & this equivalent is at the same level of abstraction. Generalization may desirable of purely stylistic reasons. It is sometimes used in rendering non-equivalents.
Antonymic translation. It is a grammatical & lexical transformation, which substitutes an affirmative construction or vice versa with some accompanying lexical changes, usually substituting the antonym for the original word.
*Keep off the grass
Paraphrasing. It is very often used in translation. It renders the meaning of some phrase in the SL by a phrase in the TL, & consists of non-correlated lexical units.
*Good riddance – счастливого пути
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of spoken language (or: speech) in written form. Transcription should not be confused with translation, which means representing the meaning of a source language text in a target language (e.g. translating the meaning of an English text into Spanish), or with transliteration which means representing a text from one writing system in another writing system (e.g. transliterating a text in Cyrillic script into Latin script).(e.g. Shakespeare –Шекспир)
Transliterationis the practice of converting a text from one writing system into another, often in a systematic way. Transliteration represents the sound, rather than the meaning (translation), of a word in a language written using different characters.
In linguistics, a calque ( /kælk/) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") or root-for-root translation
Functional substitution.We resort to it when none of the options given in the dictionary suits the context.
E.g.: "Relaxation of the well-earned rest" (развлечение? уменьшение? ослабление? смягчение? разрядка?). As none of these can be accepted, we change it to «наслаждаясь заслуженным отдыхом».
Emphatization. This means that we lend a stronger emotional or expressive impact to the translation as compared with the original: He suddenly died" = ... One has to be careful to render the right attitude depending on the context. "A cow-eyed girl" may be a compliment (and then it should be «волоокая красавица») or a negative characterization («девица с коровьими глазами»).
· Description 1) a spoken or written representation or account of a person, object, or event 2) the action of giving such a representation or account
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