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9 Computer Graphics

9.1 Presentation of Graphic Information in a Computer

Computer graphics is creation, storage and treatment of objects models and their reflection with the help of computer technique.

Basic tasks of computer graphics are:

· Inputting data to a computer which initially has a graphic form or determines it;

· Treatment, optimization of descriptions, storage, defence, transmission of local and global networks of this information facilities;

· Outputting data from a computer in a graphic form.

The fundamental theory of analytical and differential geometry, vectorial algebra, sketch geometry and technical drawing, counts, numeral methods of solution of mathematical tasks, methods of optimization, recognition of patterns, artificial intelligence is fixed in basis of computer graphics.


9.2 Computer Graphics Using


Computer graphics is used in different spheres of human’s activity: industry, economy, medicine, public institutions, educational establishments. The list of its using is extraordinarily wide and grows continually, how become more accessible and more powerful the personal computers.

The basic classes of the systems of computer graphic arts and the leading industries of their practical application are: business, scientific, engineering and illustration computer graphics.

The systems of business computer graphics are mainly used in the spheres of business, marketing, management, economic calculations. These systems are intended for visual graphic presentation of information, i.e. drawing of the graphs, charts and diagrams (graphic examples of different data).

The systems of scientific computer graphics are intended for dynamic graphic visualization of the process and the results of carrying out of scientific experiments, automated planning of scientific and scientific – technical tasks, forming of scientific documentation (mathematical, chemical, physical formulas), researches of geographical, geological, geohydrological, seismological, ecological, meteorological, astronomic and other natural objects, processes, phenomena and systems, oil-and-gas exploring and production activity, computer cartography and etc.

The systems of engineering computer graphics are intended for automation of drawing-graphic and designer works in the process of products planning.

The systems of illustration computer graphics are intended for creation and artistic processing of computer depictions (pictures, geographical cards, multimedia, WEB, etc.).

Typical cases of computer graphics using are:


Computer graphics are used for presentation of geographical and other natural phenomena with a subsequent exact recreation them on a paper or a tape. Most distribution this aspect of computer graphics got at created geographical and relief maps, maps of weather and isolines, oil-and-gas exploring maps or maps of population density.

Automation of drawings and designer works

In computer-aided designs (САD) computer graphics is used for planning the systems of mechanical, electric, electromechanics and electronic devices. Difficult complexes and structures (for example, buildings, power plants, basket of cars, fuselage of airplanes, corps of ships and them insides), electric charts, public-call networks and COMPUTER networks refer to such systems. The ultimate goal of the automated planning is an issue of drawings of parts, assembly units and assembly drawings. Considerable attention is paid to interactive work with the model of the system or its components. A mathematical model is interpreted the designing program which periodically gives out information about the conduct of the system under various conditions. After completion of the process of object planning, the additional programs will be able to conduct treatment of project database with the purpose of preparation, necessary on the different stages of making the object of technical documentation, such as complete sets of designer and technological documentation.

Design and making of animated cartoon

Animation made with the help of computer and demonstrate the conduct of various real or modeled objects in time become more popular. They allow to learn the mathematical models of the most various phenomena which are examined by science, for example, the flow liquids, nuclear and chemical reactions, physiology systems and deformation of constructions on-loading, by visual presentation of model’s conduct under various conditions. Various trainers are the second use of the computer making animated cartoon. They allow to generate not only the immobile world where an object moves but also such special effects, as clouds, fog, smog, nightly fires, and also other objects of the most various shapes and sizes which move due to their course. Computer graphics is widely used in the creation of feature films and publicity video, saturated 3D-effects.

Management processes

If trainers enable the user to socialize with the model of the actual or imaginary world, there is a necessity to work in the interactive mode directly with some aspects of the real world in many cases. Displays at the oil-processing factories, power-stations or at any other productions allow to imagine visually information from the sensing elements placed in the most essential points of the system. Such reflection of information allows to operate different processes quicker and more effective.

Automation of office works and electronic publication

Computer graphics for forming and distribution of information in administrative establishments is being widely used. It helps it is possible to make traditional printing documents (hard copy), "electronic" documents which consist not only of phototypography but also tables, graphs and other illustrative two-dimensional information.

Art and advertising

The joint aim of computer art and advertising is a desire facilities of computer graphics to express the main content of depiction by means of computer graphics and a desire to pay attention to it by aesthetically pleasant depictions. One of the most modern and economically effective mean of the use of computer graphics in this field is making of sliding seats for presentation of commercial, scientific and educational information.


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