The Concrete Construction Process (Part II)
Placing. Once the concrete has been adequately mixed, it must be placed into the formwork that defines its final position and shape. If the concrete is to be reinforced, the steel rebar must already be in place so the concrete can flow around it. If the concrete mixing truck can be located close to (and higher than) the site, then the concrete can be poured directly into the forms. In cases where this is not possible, the concrete can be transferred in buckets by a crane or by wheelbarrow. When this is impractical due to the distance required or the size of the job, the fresh concrete can be pumped through a system of pipes or hoses to the site by special concrete pumps. Concrete that is to be pumped has more stringent requirements for workability. If the concrete is too dry, it will not pump well, while if it is too wet it will tend to segregate. Segregation can also occur if the concrete falls into the formwork too quickly, as larger aggregate particles will tend to be driven downward.
Consolidation. Once the concrete is in place, it should be consolidated to remove large air voids developed during placement and to make sure that the concrete has flowed into all of the corners and nooks of the formwork. This process is also called compacting. Overconsolidation can lead to segregation and bleeding, but underconsolidation is more common, resulting in less-than optimal properties. The two most common methods of consolidation are vibration and roller compacting.
Vibration. Vibration is a mechanical process that transfers pulses of shear energy to the concrete, usually by a probe that is inserted several inches into the concrete. Each pulse of shear energy momentarily liquefies the concrete, allowing it to flow very freely. This is the standard consolidating method for general construction projects with the exception of roads. The shear energy will only travel through a limited thickness of concrete, so when a thick concrete structure is being placed, the fresh concrete is poured in layers, with each layer consolidated before the next is poured over it. Vibration is a noisy and labor-intensive step, requiring expensive and specialized equipment. For this reason, there is growing use of self-consolidating concrete which flows so freely (through the use of chemical admixtures) that mechanical consolidation is not needed.
Roller compaction. Roller compaction is a simpler and more cost-effective technique that is suitable for roads and very large mass concrete structures such as dams. A specialized vehicle with a heavy roller on the front is driven over the fresh concrete to drive it into place and remove excess air. The fresh concrete used is very stiff so that it can support the weight of the machine as it passes over. Finishing for concrete floors and pavements, the appearance, smoothness, and durability of the surface is particularly important. Finishing refers to any final treatment of the concrete surface after it has been consolidated to achieve the desired properties. This can be as simple as pushing a wide blade over the fresh concrete surface to make it flat (screeding).
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