Comprehension check 1

3. Answer the following questions:

1) The world entered the 20th century and roads didn’t satisfy the demands of the automobile, didn’t they? Why?

2) What kinds of materials were required for modern roads?

3) Why did the impetus for the development of modern road asphalt come from the United States?

4) What scientist produced the equivalent of modern road asphalt?

5) What kinds of asphalt did Clifford Richardson develop?

6) Who published standard textbook on asphalt paving?

7) Where were the first concrete roads built?

8) Why was concrete road building restricted?

9) Why did asphalt and concrete remain in intense competition for the following century?


4. Match the beginning with the ending:

1. Asphalt a) was strong and stiff and provided structural strength.

2. Concrete b) is a mixture of bitumen and stone.

3. Asphaltic concrete c) is a mixture of cement and stone.

4. Hot-rolled asphalt d) were restricted by available machinery.

5. Asphalt technology and e) contained more bitumen and produces concrete road building a far smoother and better surface for the

car and bicycle.


Language Focus 1


5. Match the following words with their synonyms:

a) to accelerate, to occur, rapidly, to contain, to restrict, similar, to apply, to modify.

b)to take place, to change, to limit, slowly, to speed up, to involve, the same, to use.


6. Give the derivatives of the following words (adjectives, adverbs, nouns, verbs) and translate them:


to pave, conductivity, to mix, to require, possible, to improve, to change, stiff, to continue, to produce, to move, to complete, to add, available.

Speaking 1

7. Try to recollect the achievements of the following people whose names were mentioned in the text:




Writing Practice 1

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