The following unit is devoted to planning, so what do you think?

1) What is the purpose of planning?

2) Is it important to use a plan before doing something?

3) What’s the job of highway planners?

2. Translate the following words and memorize them:

 

heavy traffic to draw up curve sharpness steepness slope boundary drawing culvert to fulfill grade right-of-way shoulder excavation to locate haulage

 

3. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents:

 

1. long-range needs a) узнать заранее

2. public hearings b) котлован, выемка грунта

3. to identify c) прогнозировать

4. environmental impact statement d) чернозем, перегной

5. excavation e) долговременные нужды

6. to discover in advance f) прилегающий, смежный

7. sidewalk g) заключение о воздействии на окружающую среду

8. humus h) особенность

9. to predict i) тротуар

10. adjacent j) обозначать

11. feature k) общественные слушания

Reading task

 

4. Read the text carefully and do the tasks that follow:

In planning a highway network or a route, highway planners must learn:

(1) where people live, (4) where goods are produced,

(2) where they want to go, (5) what markets the goods are sent to,

(3) how they get there, (6) how the goods reach their final users.

Traffic counts tell how many and what kinds of vehicles travel on a road, and when traffic is the heaviest. From these and other facts about the past and present, planners try to predict future growth in population and industry, changes in land use, and how such growth and change will affect highway needs.

Public participation in road planning is essential. In the U.S. highway planners hold public hearings on most major highway projects. These meetings enable citizens to present their views before a project begins.

Before highway construction begins, planners must also prepare an environmental impact statement. The purpose of such a statement is to discover in advance all the possible good and bad effects that a new highway may have on the public and on the environment.

Highway engineers draw up standards for various kinds of roads, highways, and bridges. These standards govern the thickness and kind of foundation and surfacing for different kinds of traffic; the number of lanes needed; the sharpness of curves; and the steepness of hills.

In planning a new road or rebuilding an existing one, maps must be drawn if they are not already available. Aerial photography is widely used today for this work. These maps show the location of other roads, railroads, towns, farms, houses, and other buildings. They also show such natural features as rivers, lakes, forests, hills and the slope of the land. The types of soil may also be identified.

Using these maps, engineers locate new highways and make detailed drawings called plans. The plans show the exact boundaries of the right-of-way. This is land needed for road pavement, shoulders, ditches, and side slopes. The plans also show the exact location, grades, and curves of the pavement, and the location of bridges and culverts.

So highway planners study everything from the long-range needs of a country to a particular section of a single route. This planning determines what the highway needs of the region are and how these needs can best be fulfilled and paid for.

 

Comprehension check

 

5. Decide whether these statements are true or false:

 

1. There is no need for highway planners to know where people live, where they want to go, where goods are produced and sent to.

2. In planning a new highway planners try to predict future growth in population and industry.

3. In the USA before the project begins people meet and discuss their ideas about future highways.

4. Maps showing the location of other roads, towns, houses and other buildings are usually drawn in planning a new road or rebuilding an existing one.

5. There are no special standards for various kinds of roads, highways, and bridges, which govern the thickness, kind of foundation, surfacing, the number of lanes and other peculiarities.

6. A plan is a drawing that shows exact boundaries of the right-of-way and also the exact location, grades, and curves of the pavement, and the location of bridges and culverts.

7. The aim of planning is to find the best way of highway needs fulfillment.

 

Vocabulary practice

 

6. Choose the right translation of the word:

1. formation a) создание b) земляное полотно c) учреждение

2. impermeable a) недоступный b) непроницаемый c) устойчивый

3. compact a) поднимать b) уменьшать c) уплотнять

4. slope a) наклон b) подъем c) спуск

5. suitable a) тщательный b) внимательный c) подходящий

6. tough a) слабый b) прямой c) жесткий

7. solid a) солидный b) устойчивый c) твердый

8. crush a) копать b) дробить с) облегчать

9. complete a) проводить b) завершать с) исследовать

10. thoroughly a) тщательно b) первоначально с) успешно

 

7. Fill in the correct word from the box:

 

benefits, distance, traffic, drawings, populations, route, highways, volumes, available

 

1) ___________ are designed for the haulage of goods and passengers with a minimum of effort and at low cost.

2) Traffic between two centers is approximately proportional to their ___________ and inversely proportional to the __________ between them.

3) Consideration in planning is also given to the effect of new ________ on existing streets, roads, and parking lots.

4) The economic, social, and environmental ________ and costs of the roads are discussed with relevant official and community organizations until an acceptable specific ________ is determined.

5) Computer models are then used to estimate future traffic _______ on each proposed route.

6. Aerial photography is widely used today to draw maps if they are not ______________.

7. All construction work is performed in accordance with working ___________.

 

8. Match the terms with their definitions:

 






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