Stages of individual work in class Study and describe macrospecimens
Cor bovinum. Pay attention to the enlargement of the heart, the thickness of the ventricle walls, the condition and size of the cavities. What process caused these changes?
Arteriosclerotic nephrosclerosis. Pay attention to the appearance, size and surface of the kidney, the thickness of the cortical layer on section. What process caused these changes the kidney parenchyma? What is the cause of this process? Give the synonym of arteriolosclerotic nephrosclerosis. What is the cause of the death?
Cerebral hemorrhage. Find the location, size of the hemorrhage. What is the mechanism of the hemorrhage? What are its possible outcomes?
Study, draw and describe slides
JV2 97 — cardiosclerosis (stained according to Van-Gieson). Pay attention to the connective tissue growth among cardiomyosites with atrophy of them. What process caused these changes?
JV2 144 — myocardial hypertrophy (stained with hematoxylin and eosin). Pay attention to the size of the muscular fibers and stroma quantity at low magnification. At high magnification, find the cytoplasm and nuclei of muscular cells (size, shape, and intensity of color). Explain the mechanism of hypertrophy development.
JV2 189 — gray softening of the brain (stained with hematoxylin and eosin). Pay attention to the defect of the brain tissue, which is filled with large cells, containing eosinophil granular cytoplasm and occasionally loaded with amorphic pigments. What is the cause of these changes and their outcome? How is the brown pigment called? What is the mechanism of its formation?
JV2 192 — arteriosclerotic nephrosclerosis (stained with hematoxylin and eosin). Using low magnification pay attention to the width of arteriole walls with its homogenization and acute stenosis of the lumen. There is marked lympho-histiocitis infiltration.
Study the electronogram
Spasm of arteriole in hypertensive disease, x 30000. Pay attention to the sharp narrowing of the lumen.
1. Name the diseases which can cause symptomatic hypertension: a)..., b)..., c)..., d)... .
2. Name the stages (A..., B..., C...) and variants (a)..., b)...) of hypertensive disease.
3. In which organs does plasmatic saturation and hyalinosis of the vessels occur more frequently? a)..., b)..., c)...,d)...,e)....
4. What are clinico-morphological manifestations of hypertensive crisis: a)...,b)..., c)..., d)..., e)..., f)... .
5. What are clinico-morphological forms of hypertensive disease: a)...,b)..., c)... .
6. The patient, aged 74, with the history of hypertensive syndrome, lost consciousness suddenly and died of increasing disturbance of respiration and heart activity. The autopsy has demonstrated a dark-red focus in the trunk of the brain measuring 2x1x5 cm. The weight of the heart is 550 g, the thickness of left ventricle wall is 2,5 cm. The vessels of the brain base are considerably thickened, whitish-yellow, the lumen is narrowed. What is the diagnosis?
Answers: 1. a) central nervous system diseases, b) endocrine system diseases, c) diseases of kidneys, d) diseases of vessels; 2. A: pre-clinical, B: stage of generalized changes in the vessels, C: stage of changes in organs; a) benign, b) malignant. 3. a) in the kidneys, b) in the brain, c) in the pancreas, d) in the retina, e) in the adrenal gland. 4. a) acute increasing of the blood pressure, b) spasm of arterioles, c) plasmatic saturation of arterial walls, d) fibrinoid necrosis of arteriole, e) thrombosis of a vessel, f) hemorrhage. 5. a) cardiac, b) cerebral, c) renal; 6. hypertensive disease, hemorrhagic insult.
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