Diffuse interstitial fibrosis occurs as a result of a different pulmonary diseases. In the case of diffuse interstitial fibrosis is unknown so called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis», or cryptogenic fibrosing alveo-litis», or «chronic interstitial pneumonitis))

Etiopathogenesis is unknown.

Pathology. Pathological changes are bilateral and widespread. Macroscopically the lungs are dense, heavier with reduced volume. Honey-combing (i.e. enlarged, thick-walled air spaces) develops in parts of lung. Microscopically, changes vary according to the stage of the disease with formation of hyaline mem-

branes. There is edema and cellular infiltrate in the alveolas septa in early stage. There is organization of the alveolar exudate and replacement fibrosis in the alveoli and in the interstitial septal wall with variable amount of inflammation in advanced stage.

Pneumofibrosis is diffuse interstitial connective tissue growth as a result of numerous pulmonary diseases, i.e. chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, bronchoectasis. Due to fibrosis in the vascular walls hypoxia develops. Hypoxia increases collagenproduc-tion and connective tissue growth as well. As a result, pulmonary hypertension develops with «pulmonary heart» formation.

If in addition to fibrosis pathologic regeneration is observed, the disease is termed pneumocirrhosis.

Cancer of lungs (see in Epithelial tumors).

Stages of individual work in classStudy and describe macrospecimens

Croupous pneumonia at the stage of grey hepatization. Describe the lung: a) consistence, b) air content, c) appearance on incision, d) prevalence of process, changes of the pleura. Name synonyms, list stages of the disease course, complications.

Bronchopneumonia. Describe the appearance of the lung: localization of the centers, their sizes, consistence. Name the causative factors. The forms of bronchopneumonia related to

the age. List complications. What are the differences between croupous pneumonia and focal pneumonia?

Chronic bronchitis with bronchiectasias and pneumosclerosis. Describe the kind of a bronchiectasias wall, the colour, tissue of the lung on incision, consistence. Give the definition of bronchiectasias. Name the kinds of bronchiectasias according to the etiology. List their complications.

Bronchogenic cancer. Describe the character of the tumour growth, its colour, density. Name its macroscopic form. What are the causes of death in the patients with lung cancer?

Cor pulmonale. Describe the sizes of the heart, the thickness of the wall of the right and left ventricles, the condition of trabecular and papillary muscles. The causes of development of cor pulmonale.

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