Stages of individual work in class Study and describe macrospecimens
«Nutmeg» liver. Pay attention to the organ size, its consistency and the color at section. Why was the liver named «nutmeg»? What diseases result in such pathologic process? Name the stages of congestive liver fibrosis morphogenesis.
Brown induration of the lung. Characterize the organ consistency. Explain the origin of the term «brown induration of the lung» and morphogenesis of brown induration of the lung.
Cyanotic induration of kidneys. Pay attention to the size, consistency and colour of the organs. Explain etiology and morphogenesis of cyanotic induration.
Cyanotic induration of the spleen. Pay attention to the size, consistency and colour of the organ. Explain etiology and morphogenesis of cyanotic induration.
Chronic stomach ulcer complicated with bleeding. Describe the appearance of the bottom and margins of the stomach ulcer, specify the localization of arrosioned vessel, large blood clots from the cavity found at autopsy.
Heart rupture in myocardial infarction. Determine the shape of the rupture, its margins condition and colour, blood clots in the pericardium cavity. Name the mechanism of bleeding development, the term denoting blood agglomeration in the pericardium cavity, the cause of death when such pathologic process occurs.
Hemorrhages into dura mater and brain tissue. Pay attention to localization, size and colour of the hemorrhages. There is a changes in colour of the hemorrhages, what is it caused by? Name the mechanisms of hemorrhage development in these specimens.
Cephalohematoma. Pay attention to hemorrhages localization and size. Give the definition and name possible outcomes of this pathologic process.
Cardiac cirrhosis of the liver. Describe the appearance of the organ, its capsule, colour on the section, excessive development of the stroma in the portal tracts. As an outcome of what process has this pathology developed?
Parietal thrombus in the aorta with atherosclerosis. Thrombus outlook, its relation to the vascular wall and the lumen, its colour, condition of aorta intima. Enumerate general and local conditions of thrombus formation. Name possible outcomes of this process.
Obturative thrombus in the aorta bifurcation area with atherosclerosis. Condition of the aorta intima, its relation to the vascular wall and lumen, its colour. Give the definition of thrombosis. Name possible outcomes of this process.
Thrombosis of varicose veins. Pay attention to numerous nodular round diverticuli of the vein walls. With what substance are these diverticuli filled? Name the possible outcomes of this process.
Chronic heart aneurysm with parietal thrombus. Characterize: a) the sizes of the heart, b) thickness of the left
ventricle. Describe the aneurysm: a) its localization, b) the outlook, c) the wall thickness, d) the content of the aneurysm. What process preceded its development? What are the conditions of thrombus formation in aneurysm?
Thromboembolism of pulmonary artery. Describe the localization of thromboemboli, their size, colour. Name the most frequent origin of pulmonary thromboembolism. Characterize the mechanism of death under pulmonary thromboembolism.
Hemorrhagic infarct of the lung. Describe: a) the colour of the surface, b) the colour of the place infarct, of its shape and localization. Name the causes of lung infarct: a)..., b)..., c)..., and its auspicious and inauspicious outcomes.
Acute myocardial infarction. Characterize: a) the colour of the focus of alteration, b) localization. What is the cause of crown colour at the peripheral region of necrosis? Enumerate the types of myocardial infarction according to the localization. Name the causes of myocardial infarction: a)..., b)..., c)..., and its outcomes: a)..., b)..., c)... .
Ischemic cerebral infarct. Characterize: a) the colour of the focus of alteration, b) its localization, c) causes of cerebral infarct. Name the outcomes and significance for the organism.
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