The greening of local environment

The solution of the problem of eco-sustainable development requires new approaches to conservation of the environment. The re-consideration of values and change in the orientation of global society in its relationship to nature, brought about by the cataclysms in the environment and its components, have been accompanied by the formation of new eco-policy system. Sustainable development links economic, environmental and social aspects of development in the true integrity. Aiming to do steps towards more green and sustainable future and taking into account poor state of European environment, it seems, one of the main next task is to prevent an increase of depletion of natural systems, as well as to establish favorable conditions for renaturalization and introduction the principles of eco-sustainability. One of the ways and mechanisms to achieve these purposes is ecological tourism - modern, synergetic and quick-developing sector of economic, social and environmental activity.

At present time about 16 mln people live at Ukrainian country-side. 2.7 mln of rural able-bodied people are employed at the individual subsidiary household, 730 000 of able-bodied people are not employed. So, the problem of rational use of the excess of country-side labors which increases from year to year is of a great importance. One of the way to solve this problem is organization of recreational servicing of population and regulated rest in villages. It will contribute to rising of rural employment and development of local economics. It also will draw attention to falling into decay villages having valuable nature or historical monuments and will contribute to its revival, it could be a good contribution to overcoming the crisis. Taking into consideration the realities of the modern complicated economical situation in Ukraine it should be noted that rural green tourism does not require large investment because it foresees using of existing potential of country regions: unique nature resources and objects of historical and cultural heritage, available housing fund, food produced at the individual subsidiary household. On the other hand green rural tourism stimulates rising of cultural-educational level of people, it also made them to keep the environment in a due state. The above mentioned is completely correspond to the concept of sustainable development which foresees a harmony between effective economy, nature conservation and strengthening of social guarantees for people.

Rural green tourism in Ukraine becomes more and more popular. More and more individual farms invite all of those who are tired from the noise of trams and vehicles, who does not want to breath polluted air and is exhausted from being in a crowd and wish to have nice rest in a lovely Ukrainian village. There is a good possibility to relax in it. “Village in Ukraine looks like a painted Easter egg. Green forests, blossoming gardens, white houses...” well-known Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko said. Green rural tourism to a great degree could facilitate the revival of Ukrainian village, consolidation of our state, strengthening of original national culture because just a village remains to be exponent of values which called national roots.

Taking into account that in the present condition of economy crisis economic and social problems of country-side have become uncommonly acute, the development and spreading of green and rural tourism in Ukraine is of a great value. Issues concerning the organizing and legal ensuring of relaxation in rural areas are constituent part of social policy of the state. Governmental support of small enterprises is being carrying out according to state and regional programs of supporting of a small enterprise. The development of the sphere of green rural tourism is also foreseen in these programs. In the European Union tourism directly employs more than 9 min people, representing 6 % of the total employment and 5,5% of GDP. There is a consensus that development should take place in a sustainable way in respect and in harmony with environmental historical and cultural heritage of a region. The further development in this respect can be based on econet concept and program.

 


Summary

Ukraine belongs to the countries with the high level of negative ecological consequences cause by economic activity. That is why the problem of environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources is of primary importance. High concentration of population, and industrial production and technologies make very bad influence on environment.

The loss of biodiversity, and especially of genetic and species diversity, represents a loss to all people, today and in the future. Moreover, the impacts of ecosystem and habitat degradation reach beyond national boundaries. Climate regimes, river flows and migratory species are all affected.

The interconnections in the world environment mean that biodiversity loss in one area is liable to be felt widely. The Convention on Biological Diversity is a key element of the national and international framework for biodiversity conservation. A number of other legal instruments are also important. Current agreements cover a range of specific conservation issues, and should be reviewed and strengthened. In addition, proposed conventions or agreements on global warming and forests must also be crafted to support biodiversity conservation. Strengthen the effectiveness of existing international conventions and treaties covering the conservation of ecosystems, species and genes. Ensure that international agreements on climate change and forests are compatible with the Convention on Biological Diversity and that they support biodiversity conservation.

As evident from the previous experience, it could be quite difficult to implement the sustainable development policy even under the favorable conditions of a prosperous economy. Thus it is even more difficult to pursue this goal in Ukraine, since this country is now undergoing dramatic changes, trying to overcome a profound crisis and to solve numerous particular problems.

As sum-up, the main goals in this respect are:

conservation, improvement of the environment and restoration of nature and disturbed ecosystems, landscape components and habitats of some species;

promoting sustainable, well-balanced use of natural resources;

minimizing any indirect negative influences on ecosystems, their components and ecological complexes;

strengthening public awareness, improving availability of information on biodiversity, involving more of local population in conservation activities;

defining and strengthening responsibility for biodiversity conservation, especially the responsibilities of institutions, organizations, land users, companies and individuals that use or affect natural resources.

 

For achieving the above goals, it will be necessary to implement and develop adequate legal, financial, organizational, scientific, educational and informational measures. Thus, the major aspects of biodiversity conservation activities are:

conservation and restoration of coastal, lacustrime, steppe, maritime, riparian, floodplain, mire, wetland, meadow, forest and mountain ecosystems;

preservation of species and populations;

ecological optimization of urban landscapes and other highly disturbed territories;

“ecologization” of agricultural landscapes and agricultural technologies, as well as existing practices in forestry, fishery, game, land and water management;

development of the national ecological network (a system of “green corridors”) as a component of the EECONET.

The realization of the above measures will give an opportunity to stop negative changes of the living component of the environment and facilitate the implementation of the principles of sustainable development and balanced use of natural resources.

In the countries in transition (including Ukraine) a problem is that the requirements of environmentalists of transition to sustainable development supposedly contradict striving of the majority of the population to have cheap goods and services. But just these countries have a good chance to restructurize and renew their obsolete economies with the orientation to sustainability. Just sustainable production must result in increase of employment.

 

 


CONCLUSION

 

There is broad scientific consensus on the importance of biodiversity as the very foundation of life on earth. In 2002, governments adopted the '2010 Biodiversity Target' to ‘significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth’ at the 6th Conference of the Parties (COP 6) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Although progress has been made at international, national and regional level the global 2010 Target will not be achieved according to; recent assessments which show that global biodiversity is still in decline. This continued loss is leading to a rapid decline of the Earth’s natural wealth and a dramatic reduction of future ecosystem services.

Apart from the ethical imperative to protect biodiversity, there are convincing economic reasons. Recent studies, in particular “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity” (TEEB), convincingly show that there is a sound economic basis for investing in the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity and the services it provides. Although the global 2010 target will most likely not be met at all levels, it has triggered some successes. The post-2010 biodiversity framework should build on these achievements. For instance, the target has been broadly accepted, not only in national policies, but also as an important element of many governmental and non-governmental global processes. For example, the target has been included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2006 and in 2008 the UN declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity.

The difficulty of achieving the 2010 target should not be underestimated. A key challenge for demonstrating progress in implementing the target is the lack of reliable data and visible outcomes on the ground. This may however be due to a natural temporal lag between policy formulation and implementation: 2002-2010 is after all a short period. Another challenge for achieving the target is to successfully address the main drivers of biodiversity loss.

Finding the leverage to influence these drivers is the real challenge for any post 2010 framework. These drivers are related to different economic sectors and in turn these sectors represent major economic interests. This logically points to two main directions in which the solution could be found: mainstreaming biodiversity into the different sectors and valuing it in economic terms.

Defining the post 2010 framework needs to take into account recent developments and the major challenges the worldis facing today. The world has been changing rapidly since the adoption of the 2010 target. The three F’s (Finance, Fuels and Food) are the current main concerns; whatever the precise effects of these three F’s are, it should be attempted to see them not only as threats, but rather as opportunities. Any new target must be crisis resistant and time proofed.

 

Communicating biodiversitywill also be a key ingredient for the success of the post 2010 framework. The targets for the post-2010 period should be attractive, not only in the narrow circle of the CBD, but for a much wider audience. Biodiversity, its decline and its importance to humanity’s future, has to be understood by society at large.






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