Model of Phonetic Analysis

Word from the text Analysis Parallels from cognate languages or related OE words NE words
sǣde [s] voiceless initially; [ǣ] lengthening of [æ] due to loss of [g]. OE sæʒde (variant form) SAID
ealra [ea] breaking of [æ] before [l] + consonant; [ae] from PG [a] as in pæt above Gt alls ALL
pēah [ea:] — development of PG [au] Gf pauh THOUGH
swipe [i:] — lengthening due to loss of [n] before a fric­ative Gt swinps  
stycce- [y] — palatal mutation of [u] caused by [i] which was later weakened to [e] OHG stukki rel. to STOCK
fiscap [f] from [p] by Grimm's Law R пескарь rel. to FISH

Notes on Lexis

Etymology. All the words are native, except Finn, name of a non-IE tribe. Most of the words come from the roots of the common IE layer and have parallels outside the Germanic group, e. g.:

OE sǣde, secʒan, NE say — Lith. sakyti
OE his, hē, NE he — R сей
OE cyninʒe, cyninʒ, NE king L genus
OE Norðmanna, man, NE man Sanskr manu
OE būde, būan, rel. to bēon, NE be R быть

Specifically Germanic words are: land, swiðe, huntoð, sǣ.

Specifically English formations are: hlāford, Ælfrēd, stycce-mǣlum.

Word structure and word formation. Most words are simple — either originally or after the loss of stem suffixes — e. g. hē, secʒan, eal, buan, cweðan, land, winter, lanʒ, norð, ēac, etc.

Derived words are:

cyn-ing — from the root *kun- plus the suffix -ing, building patronymics; lit. “coming from a tribe, clan”, cf. cynn Neut. -ja ‘tribe, clan’

swip-e — adv from the adj swip ‘strong’ with the help of -e, an adverb-building suffix and others.

Compound words: Norð-mann— made up of norð- and mann;

West-sǣ — made up of west- and Fem. -i and others.

Simplification is seen in hlāford — see § 232.

Text 2. From the ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLES (A. D. 911)

Read the text and its translation into Mod E. Make a grammatical analysis of the italicized words and a phonetic analysis of the words marked with an asterisk according to the models given for Text 1 (use the Glossary). Write out the words derived from the same roots and analyse the means of derivation.


911. Hēr bræchere* on Norðhymbrum pone frið, and forsāwon ǣlc frið pe Eadweard cyninʒ* and his witan him budon, and herʒodon ofer Miercna land, and sē cyninʒ hæfde ʒeʒadrod sum hund scipa, and wæs* pā on Cent, and pā scipu fōron be sūpan ēast* andlang * tōʒēanes him. pā wēnde* sē here pӕt his fultumes sē mǣsta dǣl wǣre* on pǣm scipum, and pæt hie mihten faran unbefohtene pǣr pǣr hie wolden. pā ʒeascode sē cyninʒ pæt pæt hie ūt on herʒoð fōron, pa sende* hē his fierd ǣʒðer ʒe of Westseaxum ʒe of Miercum, and hie offōron ðone here hindan, pā he hāmweard* wæs, and him pā wið ʒefuhton and pone here ʒefliemdon*, and his fela pūsenda ofslōʒon ...


In this year the host in Northumbria broke that peace, and rejected every peace which King Edward and his councillors offered them, and they harried over the land of the Mercians, and the king had gathered about a hundred ships and was then in Kent, and the ships sailed in the south eastwards along the sea coast towards him (to meet him). Then the host thought that the greatest part of his army was on those ships, and that they could journey unopposed there, where they wished. When the king heard that (that) they had gone out on a raid, then he sent his forces both from Wessex and from Mercia, and they overtook the host when it was (on the way) homeward and fought with it and put the host to flight, and killed many thousands (of the host)...

Text 3. From the ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLES (A. D. 994)

Read the text. Make a grammatical analysis of all the inflected parts of speech and translate the text into Mod E. Explain the origin of the sounds in the itali­cized words. Find examples of different types of word order and of multiple nega­tion. Point out the prototypes of analytical forms of the verb. Pick out derived and compound words and analyse their structure. Comment on the meaning of verb prefixes. Note the loan-words from Latin.


994. Hēr on pissum ʒēare cōm Anlāf1 and Sweʒen2 tō Lundenbyriʒ3 on Nativitas Sancte Marie4 mid iiii (fēower) and hundniʒontiʒum scipum, and hie ðā on ðā burh fæstlice feohtende wǣron, and ēac hie mid fӯre ontendan woldon, ac hie pǣr ʒefērdon māran hearm and yfel ponne hie ǣfre wēndon pæt him ǣniʒ burhwaru ʒedōn sceolde. Ac sēo hāliʒe Godes mōdor on pǣm dæʒe hire mildheortnesse pære burhware ʒecuðde, and hie āhredde wið heora fēondum. And hie panon fērdon, and worhton pæt mǣste yfel pe ǣfre ǣniʒ here dōn mihte on bærnette and herʒunʒe and on mannsliehtum, ǣʒðer be ðǣm sǣriman on Eastseaxum and on Centlande and on Sūðseaxum and on Hāmtūnscire.5 And æt niehstan nāmon him hors, and ridon swā wide swā hie woldon, and unāsecʒendlic yfel wyrcende wǣron. pā ʒerǣdde sē cyninʒ and his witan pæt him man tō sende and him ʒafol behēte and metsunʒe, wip pon pe hie pǣre herʒunʒe ʒeswicen. And hie pā pæt underfēnʒon, and com pā eallhere tō Hāmtūne,6 and pǣr wintersetl nāmon, and hie man pǣr fēdde ʒeond eall Westseaxna rice, and him man ʒeald xvi (siextiene) pūsend punda. pā sende sē cyninʒ æfter Anlāfe cyninʒe Ælfēah biscop7 and Æðelward ealdormann, and man ʒislode pā hwile into pǣm scipum; and hie pā lǣddon Anlāf mid miclum weorpscipe tō pǣm cyninʒe tō Andeferan8 ... And him pā Anlāf behēt, swā hē hit ēac ʒelæste, pæt hē nǣfre eft tō Anʒelcynne mid unfriðe cuman nolde ...

Notes to Text 3

1 Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway;

2Svein I. King of Denmark;

3 London; 4 On the Nativity of St. Mary (September 8);

5 Hampshire, see scir;

6 Southampton;

7 St. Alphege, bishop of Winchester, Archbishop of Canterbury:

8 Andover.

Text 4. From the translation of Bede's ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE (HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA GENTIS ANGLORUM) made in Wessex in the late 9th c., probably by King Alfred.

Read the text. Make a grammatical analysis of all the inflected parts of speech and a phonetic analysis of the italicized words. Translate the text into Mod E. Comment on the structure of derived and compound words. Point out the proto­types of analytical forms of the verb. Explain the differences in the word order. (Note that the extract contains many variant spellings and variant grammatical endings.)


Dā wæs ymb fēower hund wintra and niʒon and fēorwertiʒ fram ūres Drihtnes menniscnysse1, pæt Martiānus cāsere rice onfēnʒ and VII (seofon) ʒēar hæfde; sē wæs syxta ēac fēowertiʒum fram Aʒustō pām cāsere.2 Dā Anʒelpēod and Seaxna wæs ʒelaðod fram pām foresprecenan cyninʒe,and on Breotone cōm on prim myclum scypum, and on ēastdæle pyses ēalondes eardunʒ stōwe onfēnʒ purh ðæs ylcan cyninʒes bebod, pe hi hider ʒelaðode, pæt hi sceoldan for heora ēðle compian and feohtan; and hi sōna compedon wið heora ʒewinnan, pe hi oft ǣr norðan onherʒedon; and Seaxan pā siʒe ʒeslōʒan. pā sendan hi hām ǣrenddracan, and hēton secʒan pysses landes wæstmbǣrnysse and Brytta yrʒðo; and hi pa sōna hider sendon māran sciphere strenʒran wiʒena; and wæs unofer swipendlic weorud, pā hi tōʒædere ʒepēodde wǣton. And him Bryttas sealdan and ʒēafan eardunʒstōwe betwih him, pæt hi for sibbe and for hǣlo heora ēðles campodon and wunnon wið heora fēondum, and hi him andlyfne and āre forʒēafen for heora ʒewinne. Cōmon hi of prim folcum ðām stranʒestan Ʒermanie, pæt is of Seaxum and of Anʒle and of Ʒeatum...

Notes to Text 4

1 In the year of our Lord 449;

2 Augustus, Roman Emperor (from 27 B. C. till A.D. 14).

Text 5. From OE Poetry. A riddle of the late 10th c.

Read the poem and point out the alliteration in each line. Compare the OE text with its translation into Mod E. Point out the synonyms and circumlocutions (see § 278). Make a grammatical analysis of the italicized words and a phonetic analysis of the words marked with an asterisk:


Moððe word fræt; pæt pūhte* wrǣtlicu wyrd, pa ic pæt wundor ʒefræʒn, pæt sē wyrm forswealʒ wera ʒied* sumes, pēof in pӯstro, prymfæstne cwide ond pæs siranʒan stapol. Stælʒiest* ne wæs winte py ʒlēawra pe hē pām wordum swealʒ.*


A moth ate words; that seemed to me

a curious event, when I that wonder learnt,

that the worm swallowed up the word (tale) of someone of men,

a thief in darkness, — glorious speech (words)

and its strong foundation. The thievish guest was not

at all cleverer (when) he those words swallowed.

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