REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction.

Reproduction is the capacity of all living organisms to give rise to their babies that are similar to them. In human beings, sexual type of reproduction takes place and for this type of reproduction, male and female reproductive systems are required.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM is the system of reproduction in female human beings. Main role of female reproductive system is to produce eggs and allow the process of fertilization and development to take place within their body. Female reproductive system consists of internal and external parts.

Internal parts are the functional parts of female reproductive system. There are two main internal parts: the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the vagina.

Uterus (also known as womb) is the major hollow, muscular reproductive organ of females. It hosts the developing fetus, produces secretions of the female reproductive system and allow the passage of sperms to fallopian tubes where sperms fertilize with eggs.

Ovaries are small paired organs located near the pelvic cavity of females. Ovaries produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone and the female egg cells (the ovum). Each month during ovulation, a mature ovum is released. The ovum travels from the ovary to the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized before reaching the uterus.

The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries. The inside of each fallopian tube is covered in cilia that work with the smooth muscle of the tube to carry the ovum to the uterus.

The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the body. The vagina functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery of the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina.

External parts are accessory parts of female reproductive system. They help in the process of fertilization, and parturition etc. They are: vulva, labia, clitoris.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM is the system of sex organs of male human beings that are a part of the overall reproductive process of human beings. The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen. These organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring.

The scrotum is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes. It is located inferior to the penis in the pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches with a testis located in each pouch.

The two testes, also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. The testes are ellipsoid glandular organs around 1.5 to 2 inches long and an inch in diameter. Each testis is found inside its own pouch on one side of the scrotum.

Within the scrotum, a pair of spermatic cords connects the testes to the abdominal cavity. The spermatic cords contain the ductus deferens along with nerves, veins, arteries, and lymphatic vessels that support the function of the testes.

The ductus deferens, also known as the vas deferens, is a muscular tube that carries sperm superiorly from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct.

The Cowper’s glands, also known as the bulbourethral glands, are a pair of exocrine glands that secrete a thin alkaline fluid into the urethra that lubricates the urethra and neutralizes acid from urine remaining in the urethra after urination.

The penis is the male external sexual organ and contains the urethra and the external opening of the urethra. The function of the penis is to deliver semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse. In addition to its reproductive function, the penis also allows for the excretion of urine through the urethra to the exterior of the body.

Semen is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction and is ejaculated out of the body during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium.






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